Condition of Coral Reefs in the Waters of the East Side of Tikus Island, Bengkulu

- Giyanto, S.Si, M.Sc

Abstract


Tikus Island is located in the Province of Bengkulu. This small island is about 10 km from the City of Bengkulu. The area is only about 19,800 m2. The waters in the east side of the island was often used as location for the unloading and loading of coal from small ships into large ship (coal transhipment), to be taken to other places. This is because the condition of the port of Baai in Bengkulu is not yet possible for large ships to enter the harbour area. The study to determine the condition of coral reefs in the waters of the east side of Tikus Island was conducted in November 2012. Coral reef data collection was conducted at three stations using Line Intercept Transect (LIT). In addition, the water clarity was also measured using a Secchi disk. The results showed that the water clarity on the east side of Tikus Island was still good for coral growth, with values ranging from 9 to10 m. The percentage of live coral cover was 38.89 ± 5.02%, which was categorized as "fair". This condition was relatively better compared to several other locations that were also located in the Indian Ocean. Supporting data such as the high diversity and density of indicator fish Chaetodontidae as well as the values of heavy metal concentrations in the water columns that are still below the threshold values for marine lives, strengthen the results obtained. Regardless of the presence or absence of negative impacts of coal transhipment occurring in the waters of the east side of Tikus Island, the coral reefs were still in a normal condition.


Keywords


Tikus Island, Bengkulu, coral cover, water clarity, coal, Indian Ocean

Full Text:

PDF ()

References


Adrim, M., M. Hutomo, dan S. R. Suharti. 1991. Chaetodontid fish community structure and its relation to reef degradation at Seribu Islands reef in Indonesia. Proceeding of the regional symposium on living resources in coastal areas, Manila: 163–174.

Cappenberg, H. A. W. 2010a. Monitoring Terumbu Karang Nias (Lahewa, Sawo). COREMAP II-LIPI, Jakarta.

Cappenberg, H. A. W. 2010b. Monitoring Terumbu Karang Mentawai (Sipora, Siberut). COREMAP II-LIPI, Jakarta.

Cappenberg, H. A. W., dan Y. I. Ulumudin. 2010. Monitoring Terumbu Karang Tapanuli Tengah (Sitardas, Pulau Poncan dan Pulau Mansalar).COREMAP II-LIPI, Jakarta.

Cleary, D. F. R. , L. de Vantier, Giyanto, L. Vail, P. Manto, N. J. de Voogd, P. G. R. Dolmen, Y. Tuti, A. Budiyanto, J. Wolstenholme, B. W. Hoeksema, dan Suharsono. 2008. Relating variation in species composition to environmental variables: a multi-taxon study in an Indonesian coral reef complex. Aquat. Sci. 70: 419-431. DOI 10.1007/s00027-008-8077-2

Cole, A. J., M. S. Pratchett, dan G. P. Jones. 2008. Diversity and functional importance of coralfeeding fishes on tropical coral reefs. Fish and Fisheries 9:1–22.

Connell, J. H. 1973. Population ecology of reef budding corals. Pages 205–245 dalam Jones, O. A., R. Endean. (eds.) Biology and geology of coral reefs, Vol. 2. Academic Press, New York.

Darmono. 1995. Logam dalam sistem biologi makhluk hidup. Jakarta. UI Press.

English, S., C. Wilkinson, dan V. Baker. 1997. Survey Manual for Tropical Marine Resources. 2nd ed. AIMS, Townsville.

Fachrurrozie, A., M. P. Patria, dan R. Widiarti. 2012. Pengaruh perbedaan intensitas cahaya terhadap kelimpahan zooxanthella pada karang bercabang (Marga: Acropora) di perairan Pulau Pari, Kepulauan Seribu. Jurnal Akuatika3(2):115–124.

Fiyanto, A, H. Mulaika, N. Hidayati, N. Shahab,dan L. Guerrero. 2010. Batubara mematikanBagaimana rakyat Indonesia membayar mahauntuk bahan bakar terkotor di IndonesiaGreenpeace Asia Tenggara, Jakarta.

Giyanto, Y. Tuti, dan A. Budiyanto. 2006Analisa pendahuluan kondisi terumbu karang di Kepulauan Seribu Jakarta pada tahun 2005.Hlm. 9–18 dalam Y. Tuti, dan SSoemodihardjo, editors. Ekosistem TerumbuKarang di Kepulauan Seribu Monitoring dan Evaluasi Tiga Dasawarsa. LIPI Press, Jakarta.

Giyanto, M. Adrim, M. F. A. Ismail, Lestari, F.Budiyanto, A. Rozak, D. Irianto, dan A.Budiyanto. 2012. Laporan Kajian Kerusakan Lingkungan Terumbu Karang dan Perairan diSekitar Pulau Tikus Bengkulu. Badan Penelitian, Pengembangan dan Statistik Daerah Provinsi Bengkulu dan PusatPenelitian Oseanografi LIPI, Jakarta.

Gomez, E. D., dan H. T. Yap. 1988. Monitoring Reef Condition. Pages 171–178 dalam R. A. Kenchington, dan B. E. T. Hudson, editors. Coral Reef Management Handbook. Unesco Publisher, Jakarta.

Graham, N. A. J, S. K. Wilson, S. Jennings, N. V. C. Polunin, J. P. Bijoux, dan J. Robinson. 2006. Dynamic fragility of oceanic coral reef ecosystems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103:8425–8429.

Green, L., K. Addy, dan N. Sanbe. 1996.Measuring Water Clarity. Natural Resources Facts, Fact Sheet No. 96-1. Cooperative Extension, University of Rhode Island.

Hermanlimianto, M. I. Y. T. 2010. Kondisi terumbu karang di Kepulauan Seribu Bagian Selatan (Teluk Jakarta) Periode 1985-2009. Hlm. 110–120 In: R. Muchsin, M. Muchtar, Pramudji, Sulistijo, T. Susana, dan Fahmi, editors. Dinamika Ekosistem Perairan Kepulauan Seribu, Teluk Jakarta. LIPI Press, Jakarta.

Hoegh-Guldberg, O. 2011. Coral reef ecosystems and anthropogenic climate change. Reg. Environ. Change 11 (Suppl 1):S215–S227. DOI 10.1007/s10113-010-0189-2.

Hourigan, T. F., T. C. Tricas, dan E. S. Reese. 1988. Chapter 6. Coral reef fishes as indicators of environmental stress in coral reefs. Hlm. 107–135 dalam D. F. Soule, dan G. S. Kleppel, editors. Marine Organisms as Indicators. Springer-Verlag New York Inc, New York.

Hughes, T. P. 1987. Skeletal density and growth form of corals. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 35:259–266.

Hurlbert, S. H. 1984. Pseudoreplication and the design of ecological field experiments. Ecological Monographs (51):187–211.

Keputusan Menteri Negara Lingkungan Hidup No. 51 Tahun 2004 tentang Baku Mutu Air Laut.

Krishnan P., Grinson-George, N. Vikas, TitusImmanuel, M. P. Goutham-Bharathi, A. Anand, K. V. Kumar, dan S. S. Kumar. 2012. Tropical storm off Myanmar coast sweeps reefs in Ritchie’s Archipelago, Andaman. Environ. Monit. Assess. DOI 10.1007/s10661012-2948-7.

Lorwens, J. 2011. Hubungan Antara Ikan Indikator (Chaetodonthidae) dan Kondisi Karang di Pesisir Pulau Biak dan Kepulauan Padaido. Jurnal Penelitian Perikan Indonesia 17(2):147–156.

Makatipu, P., dan Suyarso. 2010. Monitoring Terumbu Karang Nias Selatan (Teluk Dalam dan Pulau-pulau Batu). COREMAP II-LIPI, Jakarta.

Palar, H. 2008. Pencemaran dan Toksikologi Logam Berat. Rineka Cipta, Jakarta.

Pratchett, M. S., S. K. Wilson, dan A. H. Baird. 2006. Declines in the abundance of Chaetodon butterfly fishes following extensive coral depletion. Journal of Fish Biology 69:1269–1280.

Reese, E. S. 1981. Predation on corals by fishes of the family Chaetodontidae: implications for conservation and management of coral reef ecosystems. Bull. Mar. Sci. 31:594–604.

Santoso, B. 2011. Kualitas Perairan Kepulauan Seribu. Hlm. 13-17 dalam E. Setyawan, S. Yusri, dan S. Timotius, editors. Terumbu Karang Jakarta, Pengamatan Jangka Panjang Terumbu Karang Kepulauan Seribu (2005–2009). Yayasan Terangi, Jakarta.

Schank, J. C., dan T. J. Koehnle. 2009. Pseudoreplication is a Pseudoproblem. Journal of Comparative Psychology 123(4):421–433. DOI: 10.1037/a0013579.

Sukarno. 1977. Fauna karang batu di terumbu karang Pulau Air dengan catatan tentang ekologinya. Hlm. 293–309 dalam Hutomo, M., K. Romimohtarto, Burhanuddin (eds.) Teluk Jakarta: sumberdaya, sifat-sifat oseanologis serta permasalahannya. Proyek Penelitian Poptensi Sumberdaya Ekonomi. Lembaga Oseanologi Nasional-LIPI, Jakarta.

Thamrin, M. Hafiz, dan A. Mulyadi. 2004. Pengaruh Kekeruhan Terhadap Densitas Zooxanthellae pada Karang Scleractinia Acropora aspera di Perairan Pulau Mursala dan Pulau Poncan Sibolga, Sumatera Utara. Ilmu Kelautan 9(2):82–85.

Tricas, T. C. 1989. Prey selection by coral-feeding butterfly fishes: strategies to maximise the profit. Environ. Biol. Fish. 25:175–185.

Wilson, S. K., R. Fisher, M. S. Pratchett, N. A. J. Graham, N. K. Dulvy, R. A. Turner, A. Cakacaka, N. V. C. Polunin, dan S. P. Rushton. 2008. Exploitation and habitat degradation as agents of change within coral reef fish communities. Global Change Biology 14:2796–2809.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.
Powered by OJS | Design by ThemeOJS