Effects of Hypoxia on Oxygen Consumption of Tilapia Fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus)

Vitas Atmadi Prakoso, Young Jin Chang


Oxygen is a vital parameter in aquaculture activities. The decrease of dissolved oxygen levels in aquaculture media should be highly observed, since very low dissolved oxygen conditions (hypoxia) could negatively affect to the growth and survival of fish. Therefore, research on the condition of hypoxia is very important to be studied. This study was conducted in January-February 2013 at the Laboratorium of Fish Reproductive Physiology, Pukyong National University, South Korea to measure oxygen consumption in tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (total length: 14.2 ± 1.4 cm, weight: 31.3 ± 2.0 g) under normal conditions (normoxia) and hypoxia. Measurement was conducted using respirometer (dimension: 20 × 17,5 × 10 cm; volume: 3,5 L) every 10 minutes during four hours of observation. Experiment was conducted with three replications. The results showed that oxygen consumption of tilapia fingerlings in hypoxia conditions (12.09 ± 3.20 mg O2/kg/h) was lower than normoxia (35.67 ± 4.19 mg O2/kg/h) (P<0.01). Continuous hypoxic conditions could negatively affect fish movements, which could ultimately lead to mortality when dissolved oxygen levels are very low. Meanwhile, the results on determination of critical oxygen levels for tilapia showed a dissolved oxygen range of 1.9 ± 0.5 mg/L.


Oreochromis niloticus; dissolved oxygen; hypoxia; oxygen consumption


Borger, R., G. de Boeck, J. van Auderke, R. Dommisse, R. Blust, and A. van den Linden. 1998. Recovery of the energy metabolism after a hypoxic challenge at different temperature conditions: a 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy study with common carp. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A 120:143–150

Brandt, S. B., M. Gerken, K. J. Hartman, and E. Demers. 2009. Effects of hypoxia on food consumption and growth of juvenile striped bass (Morone saxatilis). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 381:S143–S149.

Brett, J. R. and J. M. Blackburn. 1981. Oxygen requirement for growth of young coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and sockeye (O. nerka) salmon at 15oC. Canadian Journalof Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 38:399–404.

Brett, J. R. and D. D. Groves. 1979. Physiological energetics. In: W. S. Hoar, D. J. Randall, andJ. R. Brett (Eds). Fish Physiology, Vol. VIII, Bioenergetics and Growth. Academic Press, New York.

Cech, J. J., S. J. Mitchell and T. E. Wragg. 1984. Comparative growth of juvenile white sturgeon and striped bass: effects of temperature and hypoxia. Estuaries 7(1):12–18.

Chabot, D. and G. Claireaux. 2008. Environmental hypoxia as a metabolic constraint on fish: the case of Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua. Marine Pollution Bulletin 57(6-12):287–294.

Cruz-Neto, A.P. and J. F. Steffensen. 1997. The effects of acute hypoxia and hypercapnia on oxygen consumption of the freshwater European eel. Journal of Fish Biology 50:759–769.

Fry, F. E. J. 1971. The effect of environmental factors on the physiology of fish. In: W. S. Hoar and D. J. Randall (Eds.). Fish Physiology, Vol. VI. Environmental relations and behavior. Academic Press, New York.

Gallage, S., T. Katagiri, M. Endo, K. Futami, M. Endo, and M. Maita. 2016. Influence of moderate hypoxia on vaccine efficacy against Vibrio anguillarum in Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia). Fish & Shellfish Immunology 51:271–281.

Jobling, M. 1993. Bioenergetics: feed intake and energy partitioning. In:Rankin, J. C. and F. B. Jensen (Eds). Fish Ecophysiology, Fish and Fisheries Series 9. Chapman and Hall, London. p. 16–28.

Jobling, M. 1994. Fish bioenergetics. Chapman and Hall. London.

Kawamoto, N. 1977. Fish physiology. Koseisha-Koseikaku. Tokyo (in Japanese).

Killen, S. S., S. Marras, M. R. Ryan, P. Domenici, and D. J. McKenzie. 2012. A relationship between metabolic rate and risk taking behaviour is revealed during hypoxia in juvenile European sea bass. Functional Ecology 26(1):134–143.

Kim, I. N., Y. J. Chang, and J. Y. Kwon. 1995. Pattern of oxygen consumption in six species of marine fish. Journal of the Korean Fisheries Society 28(3):373–381.

Mahfouz, M. E., M. M. Hegazi, M. A. El-Magd, and E. A. Kasem. 2015. Metabolic and molecular responses in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus during short and prolonged hypoxia. Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology 48(5):319–340.

Mamun, S., U. Focken, and K. Becker. 2013. A respirometer system to measure critical and recovery oxygen tensions of fish under simulated diurnal fluctuations in dissolved oxygen. Aquaculture International 21:31–44.

Petersen, L. H. and A. K. Gamperl. 2010. Effect of acute and chronic hypoxia on the swimming performance, metabolic capacity and cardiac function of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Journal of Experimental Biology 213(5):808–819.

Pörtner, H. O., N. Heisler, and M. K. Grieshaber. 1985. Oxygen consumption and mode of energy production in the intertidal worm Sipunculus nudus L.: definition and characterization of the critical PO2 for an oxyconformer. Respiration Physiology 53(3):361–77.

Prakoso, V. A., K. T. Kim, B. H. Min, R. Gustiano, and Y. J. Chang. 2016. Lethal dissolved oxygen and blood properties of grey mullets Mugil cephalus in seawater and freshwater. Berita Biologi 15(1):89–94.

Richards, J. G., A. P. Farrell, & C. J. Brauner (Eds.). 2009. Fish physiology: hypoxia (Vol. 27). Academic Press

Saint-Paul, U. 1989. Hypoxia tolerance of neotropical fish culture candidates. In: N. de Pauw, E. Jaspers, H. Ackefors, and N. Wilkins (Eds). Aquaculture—A Biotechnology in Progress. European Aquaculture Society, Bredene. p. 907–912.

Snyder, S., L. E. Nadler, J. S. Bayley, M. B. S. Svendsen, J. L. Johansen, P. Domenici, and J. F. Steffensen. 2016. Effect of closed v. intermittent flow respirometry on hypoxia tolerance in the shiner perch Cymatogaster aggregata. Journal of Fish Biology 88(1):252–264.

Speers-Roesch, B., E. Sandblom, G. Y. Lau, A. P. Farrell, & J. G. Richards. 2009. Effects of environmental hypoxia on cardiac energy metabolism and performance in tilapia. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 298(1):104–119.

Weithman, A. S.and M. A. Haas. 1984. Effects of dissolved oxygen depletion on the rainbow trout fishery in Lake Taneycomo, Missouri. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 113:109–124.

Yang, H., Z. D. Cao, and S. J. Fu. 2013. The effects of diel-cycling hypoxia acclimation on the hypoxia tolerance, swimming capacity and growth performance of southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology 165(2):131–138.

Zhao, Y., C. D. Zhu, B. Yan, J. L. Zhao, and Z. H. Wang. 2014. miRNA-directed regulation of VEGF in tilapia under hypoxia condition. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 454(1):183–188.


  • There are currently no refbacks.
Powered by OJS | Design by ThemeOJS